• Science Vocabulary

    • Understanding Coronavirus

       
      1. Virus – tiny particles that can cause disease in living organisms such as people, animals, and plants
      2. Coronavirus– a specific type of virus with a circular shape, a single strand of RNA, and surrounded by spike-like proteins
      3. COVID-19– a type coronavirus that originated in the Chinese city of Wuhan in the late part of 2019.
      4. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid)– carries a message from DNA about the formation of proteins; in a virus it contains genetic information to help viruses reproduce
      5. Vaccines – a substance injected into your body to help you build a protection against a virus.
      6. Immune System– the body’s defense against infections using a complex network of cells and proteins
      7. Quarantine– a period of time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease
      8. Pandemic– a disease that has spread all over an entire country or the world
      9. Epidemic – a widespread of disease in one community

     

    Motion

    1.  Reference Point - the starting point you choose to describe the location or position of an object

    2.  Position - an object's distance in a certain direction from a reference point

    3.  Motion - the process of changing position

    4.  Displacement - the difference between the first position and the final position of an object

    5.  Speed - the measure of the distance an object travels per unit of time

    6.  Constant Speed - the rate of change in position in which the same distance is traveled each second

    7.  Instantaneous Speed - speed at a specific instant in time

    8.  Average Speed - the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to travel that distance

    9.  Velocity - the speed and direction of a moving object

    10.  Acceleration - a measure of the change in velocity during a period of time

     

     

     

    Force, Friction, and Gravity – Vocabulary

     

     

    1. Force – a push or a pull an object.
    2. Contact force – a push or a pull on one object by another that is touching it.
    3. Noncontact force – a force that one object can apply to another object without touching it.
    4. Net force – the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.
    5. Newton – a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second.
    6. Unbalanced force – a force that produces a nonzero net force, which changes an object’s motion.
    7. Balanced force – equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.
    8. Friction – a force that resists the motion of two surfaces that are touching.
    9. Static friction – friction that acts on objects that are not moving.
    10. Sliding friction – friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.
    11. Rolling friction – friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface.
    12. Fluid friction – friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid.
    13. Gravity – the attractive force between all objects that have mass.
    14. Mass – the amount of matter in an object.
    15. Weight – the force of gravity on an object.

     

     

     

     

    Interactions of Living Things

     

    1.     Ecology - the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

     

    2.     Biotic - the living factors in the environment

     

    3.    .Abiotic - the nonliving factors in the environment

     

    4.     Population - a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

     

    5.     Community - all the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other

     

    6.     .Ecosystem - a community of organisms and the abiotic factors that affect them

     

    7.     Biosphere - the part of the Earth where life exists

     

    8.     Carrying Capacity - the largest population size that can exist in a particular area

     

    9.     Limiting Factor-an environmental factor that causes a population to decrease

     

    10. Habitat-an environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.

     

    11. Niche-the role an organism plays in its environment.

     

    12. Adaptation-the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environment.

     

    13. Competition-the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same resources

     

    14. Prey - an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism (hunted)

     

    15. Predator - an organism that eats all or part of another organism (hunter)

     

    16. Symbiosis - the relationship between two different organisms that live closely together

     

    17. Mutualism - when two different species live together and they both benefit from the relationship

     

    18. Commensalism - when two different species live together and one benefits but the other is unaffected

     

    19. Parasitism - when two different species live together and one benefits while the other is harmed

     

    20. Host-the organism that the parasite lives on

     

    21. Herbivore - an organism that eats only plants

     

    22. Carnivore - an organism that eats only animals

     

    23. Omnivore - an organism that eats some plants and some animals

     

    24. Food Chain - the pathway of energy transfer

     

    25. Food Web -  a diagram that shows all feeding relationships in a community

     

    26. Energy Pyramid - a diagram that shows the gain or loss of energy in a community

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Protista Kingdom Vocabulary

    1.  Protist - a member of a group of eukaryotic organisms which have a membrane-bound nucleus

     

    2.  Algae - plant-like protists that produce food through photosynthesis using light energy and carbon dioxide

     

    3.  Diatom - a microscopic plant-like protist with a hard outer wall

     

    4.  Protozoans - protists that resemble tiny animals

     

    5.  Cilia - short hair-like structures that grow on the surface of some protists

     

    6.  Paramecium - a protist with cilia and two types of nuclei

     

    7.  Amoeba - is a common protist with an unusual adaptation for movement

     

    8.  Pseudopod - a temporary "false" foot that pushes the protist forward

     

     

    Kingdom Fungi Vocabulary

     

    1. Fungus – eukaryotic heterotrophs that have a rigid cell wall and no chlorophyll.

     

    2. Hypha – thread-like fungal filaments

     

    3. Mycelium – the mass of fungal filaments, or hyphae, that form the body of the fungus

     

    4. Spores – small reproductive cells protected by a thick cell wall.

     

    5. Mold – a shapeless, fuzzy fungus

     

    6. Lichen – a combination of fungus and algae that grow together

     

    7. Mycologist – a scientist who studies fungi

     

    8. Penicillin – a common antibiotic made from fungi and used to treat bacterial infections

     

     

     

     

    Plantae Kingdom Vocabulary

     

    1. Photosynthesis- a food making process where plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen.

    2. Chloroplasts- structures in a plant cell that contain chlorophyll to help a plant make food

    3. Chlorophyll- a green pigment found in the chloroplast of plant, algae, and some bacteria cells

    4. Cuticle- a waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants

    5. Vascular Tissue- - a system of tube-like structures inside a plant that transport water, mineral, and food.

    6. rhizoids- a thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant.

    7. frond- the leaf of a fern plant.

    8. pollen-tiny particles produced by seed plants that contain sperm cells

    9. tropism-the growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus

    10. dormancy-a period when an organism’s growth or activity stops

     

     

     

     

    Kingdom Animalia

     

    1.  Cell- the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing

     

    1.  Tissue- a group of similar cells that perform the same function

     

    1.  Organ- a structure in the body composed of different kinds of tissue

     

    1.  Phylum- a group of organisms that belong to the same kingdom

     

    1.  Vertebrate- animals that have backbones

     

    1.  Invertebrate- animals that do not have backbones

     

    1.  Adaptation- anything that helps and organism to be successful in its environment

     

    1.  Eukaryote- a cell that contains a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

     

    1. Ectotherm- cold-blooded animals

     

    1.  Endotherm- warm-blooded animals

     

    1.  Cilia- small, hair-like projections that help single-cell eukaryotes to move

     

    1.  DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid; the genetic code for a living thing

     

    1.  RNA- Ribonucleic Acid; uses the DNA code to produce proteins

     

     

     

     

     

    Bacteria Chapter

    1.  Bacteria- single-celled microscopic organisms

    2.  Cytoplasm- a gel-like material located inside the cytoplasm of the cell

    3.  Ribosomes- small structures within a cell where proteins are made

    4.  Flagellum- long, whip-like structure that is present in some bacteria to provide movement

    5.  Binary Fission- a way for bacteria to reproduce where one cell divided into two identical cells

    6.  Asexual Reproduction- reproduction that involves only one parent and the offspring are identical to that parent

    7.  Sexual Reproduction- reproduction involving two parents where genetic material is combined to form an organism with new genetic material

    8.  Conjugation- a way for bacteria to reproduce by transferring genetic information from one cell into another

    9.  Endospore- a small, rounded, thick-walled cell that forms inside a bacterial cell

    10.  Pasteurization- the process of heating food to a temperature high enough to kill the bacteria in them

    11.  Decomposers- organisms that break down large chemicals in dead organisms

     

     

     

    Living Things Unit Vocabulary

     

    1. Cell-the smallest unit that can perform all life processes

     

    1. Stimulus- anything that causes a reaction or change in an organism or any part of an organism.

     

    1. Homeostasis-the maintenance of a constant internal state in a changing environment

     

    1. Asexual reproduction-reproduction that does not involve the union of sex cells an in which one parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent.

     

    1. Sexual reproduction-reproduction in which the sex cells from two parents unite to produce offspring that share traits from both parents.

     

    1. Spontaneous Generation-the mistaken idea that living organisms arise from nonliving sources.

     

    1. Classification-process of grouping things based on their similarities.

     

    1. Taxonomy-scientific study of how things are classified.

     

    1. Species-a group of organisms that can mate and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.

     

     

      Scientific Inquiry Unit

     

    • 1.  Quantitative - numerical information (6 feet tall, 120 degrees Celsius, 2 Liters)
       
      2.  Qualitative - information that is descriptive; in the form of adjectives; collected by your senses (hot, furry, the male lions were aggressive, the liquid flows smoothly)
       
      3.  Scientific Inquiry - The process of discovery in science; ways that scientists study the natural world
       
      4.  Hypothesis - a possible explanation for a scientific problem or question you have; educated guess
       
      5.  Manipulated (Independent) Variable - also called independent variable; the one change that is tested in an experiment
       
      6.  Responding (Dependent) Variable - also called the dependent variable; the result that is being measured in an experiment
       
      7.  Control groupOne of the groups in the experiment that is left untested.  An experiment needs one control group and several experimental groups.
       
      8.  Controlled Variable - also called controls; the many factors that stay the same throughout the experiment 
       
      9.  Data - information you collect in an experiment; may be qualitative or quantitative
       
      10.  Scientific Law - a statement that explains what will happen every time the same conditions are present.
       
      11.  Scientific Theory - a well-tested explanation
       

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Universe Vocabulary 

     1. Spectroscope-instrument used to spread light into different wavelengths

     

    2. Light year- the distance light travels in one year. Equal to about 10 trillion kilometers.

     

    3. Nuclear fusion-process that occurs when the nuclei of several atoms combine into one larger nucleus.

     

    4. Star-a large ball of gas held together by gravity with a core so hot that nuclear fusion occurs.

     

    5. Radiative zone-a shell of cooler hydrogen above a star’s core

     

    6. Convection zone- where hot gas moves up toward the surface and cooler gas moves deeper into the interior

     

    7. Photosphere-the apparent surface of a star.

     

    8. Chromosphere-the orange –red layer above the photosphere

     

    9. Corona-the wide, outermost layer of a star’s atmosphere

     

    10. Nebula-a cloud of gas and dust

     

    11. White dwarf-a hot, dense, slowly cooling sphere of carbon

     

    12. Supernova-an enormous explosion that destroys a star

     

    13. Black hole-an object whose gravity is so great that no light can escape

     

    14. Galaxy-a huge collection of stars

     

    15. Asteroid-millions of small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun

     

    16. Comet-made of gas, dust and ice and moves around the Sun in an oval-shaped orbit.

     

    17. Meteoroid-small, rocky particle that moves through space

     

    18. Meteor-a streak of light in Earth’s atmosphere made by a glowing meteoroid

     

    19. Meteorite-is a meteoroid that strikes a planet or moon

     

     

     

     

      Earth, Moon, and Sun

    1.    Astronomy-the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space

    2.   Axis- an imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and the North and South poles, about which Earth rotates.

    3.   Rotation-the spinning motion of a planet on its axis

    4.   Revolution-the movement of an object around another object

    5.   Orbit-the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space.

    6.   Calendar-a system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year

    7.   Solstice-the two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator

    8.   Equinox-the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun

    9.   Force- any push or pull

    10.            Gravity-the attractive force between objects; its strength depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them

    11.            Law of Universal Gravitation-the scientific law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object

    12.            Mass-the amount of matter in an object

    13.            Weight-the force of gravity on an object at the surface of a planet

    14.            Inertia-the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

    15.            Newton’s first law of motion-an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force

    16.            Phases-one of the different apparent shapes of the moon as seen from Earth

    17.            Eclipse-process in which an object in space comes between the sun and a third object and a shadow is cast on the third object

    18.            Solar eclipse-the blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and Earth19.            Umbra- the darkest part of a shadow

    20.            Penumbra-the part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part

    21.            Lunar eclipse-the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and the moon

    22.            Tide-the periodic rise and fall of the level of water in the ocean

    23.            Spring tide-the tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides

    24.            Neap tide- the tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides

     

     

     

     

     

    Newton’s Laws Vocabulary

     

    1. Unbalanced forces-forces acting on an object that combine and form a net force that is NOT zero. This will cause an object to move.

     

    1. Balanced forces-forces acting on an object that combine and form a net force of zero. This will NOT cause a change in an object’s motion.

     

    1. Inertia- the tendency of an object to resist a change in its motion.

     

    1. Force pair-the forces two objects apply to each other. Known as action and reaction forces.

     

    1. Momentum-a measure of how hard it is to stop a moving object

     

    1. Mass-the amount of matter in an object.

     

    1. Acceleration-the rate of time it takes to change velocity.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Force, Friction, and Gravity – Vocabulary

     

     

    1. Force – a push or a pull an object.
    2. Contact force – a push or a pull on one object by another that is touching it.
    3. Noncontact force – a force that one object can apply to another object without touching it.
    4. Net force – the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.
    5. Newton – a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second.
    6. Unbalanced force – a force that produces a nonzero net force, which changes an object’s motion.
    7. Balanced force – equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.
    8. Friction – a force that resists the motion of two surfaces that are touching.
    9. Static friction – friction that acts on objects that are not moving.
    10. Sliding friction – friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.
    11. Rolling friction – friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface.
    12. Fluid friction – friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid.
    13. Gravity – the attractive force between all objects that have mass.
    14. Mass – the amount of matter in an object.
    15. Weight – the force of gravity on an object.

     

    Motion

    1.  Reference Point - the starting point you choose to describe the location or position of an object

    2.  Position - an object's distance in a certain direction from a reference point

    3.  Motion - the process of changing position

    4.  Displacement - the difference between the first position and the final position of an object

    5.  Speed - the measure of the distance an object travels per unit of time

    6.  Constant Speed - the rate of change in position in which the same distance is traveled each second

    7.  Instantaneous Speed - speed at a specific instant in time

    8.  Average Speed - the total distance traveled divided by the total time taken to travel that distance

    9.  Velocity - the speed and direction of a moving object

    10.  Acceleration - a measure of the change in velocity during a period of time

     

    Interactions of Living Things

     

    1.     Ecology - the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

     

    2.     Biotic - the living factors in the environment

     

    3.    .Abiotic - the nonliving factors in the environment

     

    4.     Population - a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

     

    5.     Community - all the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other

     

    6.     .Ecosystem - a community of organisms and the abiotic factors that affect them

     

    7.     Biosphere - the part of the Earth where life exists

     

    8.     Carrying Capacity - the largest population size that can exist in a particular area

     

    9.     Limiting Factor-an environmental factor that causes a population to decrease

     

    10. Habitat-an environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.

     

    11. Niche-the role an organism plays in its environment.

     

    12. Adaptation-the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environment.

     

    13. Competition-the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same resources

     

    14. Prey - an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism (hunted)

     

    15. Predator - an organism that eats all or part of another organism (hunter)

     

    16. Symbiosis - the relationship between two different organisms that live closely together

     

    17. Mutualism - when two different species live together and they both benefit from the relationship

     

    18. Commensalism - when two different species live together and one benefits but the other is unaffected

     

    19. Parasitism - when two different species live together and one benefits while the other is harmed

     

    20. Host-the organism that the parasite lives on

     

    21. Herbivore - an organism that eats only plants

     

    22. Carnivore - an organism that eats only animals

     

    23. Omnivore - an organism that eats some plants and some animals

     

    24. Food Chain - the pathway of energy transfer

     

    25. Food Web -  a diagram that shows all feeding relationships in a community

     

    26. Energy Pyramid - a diagram that shows the gain or loss of energy in a community

     

     

    Protista Kingdom Vocabulary

    1.  Protist - a member of a group of eukaryotic organisms which have a membrane-bound nucleus

     

    2.  Algae - plant-like protists that produce food through photosynthesis using light energy and carbon dioxide

     

    3.  Diatom - a microscopic plant-like protist with a hard outer wall

     

    4.  Protozoans - protists that resemble tiny animals

     

    5.  Cilia - short hair-like structures that grow on the surface of some protists

     

    6.  Paramecium - a protist with cilia and two types of nuclei

     

    7.  Amoeba - is a common protist with an unusual adaptation for movement

     

    8.  Pseudopod - a temporary "false" foot that pushes the protist forward

     

     

     

     

    Kingdom Fungi Vocabulary 

    1. Fungus – eukaryotic heterotrophs that have a rigid cell wall and no chlorophyll.
    2. Hypha – thread-like fungal filaments
    3. Mycelium – the mass of fungal filaments, or hyphae, that form the body of the fungus
    4. Spores – small reproductive cells protected by a thick cell wall.
    5. Mold – a shapeless, fuzzy fungus
    6. Lichen – a combination of fungus and algae that grow together
    7. Mycologist – a scientist who studies fungi
    8. Penicillin – a common antibiotic made from fungi and used to treat bacterial infections

     

     

     

     

    Plantae Kingdom Vocabulary

     

    1. Photosynthesis- a food making process where plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen.
    2. Chloroplasts- structures in a plant cell that contain chlorophyll to help a plant make food
    3. Chlorophyll- a green pigment found in the chloroplast of plant, algae, and some bacteria cells
    4. Cuticle- a waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants
    5. Vascular Tissue- a system of tube-like structures inside a plant that transport water, mineral, and food.
    6. rhizoids- a thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant.
    7. frond- the leaf of a fern plant.
    8. pollen-tiny particles produced by seed plants that contain sperm cells
    9. tropism-the growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
    10. dormancy-a period when an organism’s growth or activity stops

     

     

    Kingdom Animalia

     

    1.  Cell- the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing

     

    1.  Tissue- a group of similar cells that perform the same function

     

    1.  Organ- a structure in the body composed of different kinds of tissue

     

    1.  Phylum- a group of organisms that belong to the same kingdom

     

    1.  Vertebrate- animals that have backbones

     

    1.  Invertebrate- animals that do not have backbones

     

    1.  Adaptation- anything that helps and organism to be successful in its environment

     

    1.  Eukaryote- a cell that contains a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

     

    1. Ectotherm- cold-blooded animals

     

    1.  Endotherm- warm-blooded animals

     

    1.  Cilia- small, hair-like projections that help single-cell eukaryotes to move

     

    1.  DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid; the genetic code for a living thing

     

    1.  RNA- Ribonucleic Acid; uses the DNA code to produce proteins

     

     
    Bacteria Chapter
    • 1.  Bacteria - single-celled microscopic organisms

      2.  Cytoplasm - a gel-like material located inside the cytoplasm of the cell

      3.  Ribosomes - small structures within a cell where proteins are made

      4.  Flagellum - long, whip-like structure that is present in some bacteria to provide movement

      5.  Binary Fission - a way for bacteria to reproduce where one cell divided into two identical cells

      6.  Asexual Reproduction - reproduction that involves only one parent and the offspring are identical to that parent

      7.  Sexual Reproduction - reproduction involving two parents where genetic material is combined to form an organism with new genetic material

      8.  Conjugation - a way for bacteria to reproduce by transferring genetic information from one cell into another

      9.  Endospore - a small, rounded, thick-walled cell that forms inside a bacterial cell

      10.  Pasteurization - the process of heating food to a temperature high enough to kill the bacteria in them

      11.  Decomposers - organisms that break down large chemicals in dead organisms

       

       

       

       

     
     
     

     

     

     

    Science Inquiry unit

      

    • 1.  Quantitative - numerical information (6 feet tall, 120 degrees Celsius, 2 Liters)
       
      2.  Qualitative - information that is descriptive; in the form of adjectives; collected by your senses (hot, furry, the male lions were aggressive, the liquid flows smoothly)
       
      3.  Scientific Inquiry - The process of discovery in science; ways that scientists study the natural world
       
      4.  Hypothesis - a possible explanation for a scientific problem or question you have; educated guess
       
      5.  Manipulated (Independent) Variable - also called independent variable; the one change that is tested in an experiment
       
      6.  Responding (Dependent) Variable - also called the dependent variable; the result that is being measured in an experiment
       
      7.  Control groupOne of the groups in the experiment that is left untested.  An experiment needs one control group and several experimental groups.
       
      8.  Controlled Variable - also called controls; the many factors that stay the same throughout the experiment 
       
      9.  Data - information you collect in an experiment; may be qualitative or quantitative
       
      10.  Scientific Law - a statement that explains what will happen every time the same conditions are present.
       
      11.  Scientific Theory - a well-tested explanation
       
       
       

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     



     


     

     
     

    Universe Vocabulary 

     
    1. Spectroscope-instrument used to spread light into different wavelengths

     

    1. Light year- the distance light travels in one year. Equal to about 10 trillion kilometers.

     

    1. Nuclear fusion-process that occurs when the nuclei of several atoms combine into one larger nucleus.

     

    1. Star-a large ball of gas held together by gravity with a core so hot that nuclear fusion occurs.

     

    1. Radiative zone-a shell of cooler hydrogen above a star’s core

     

    1. Convection zone- where hot gas moves up toward the surface and cooler gas moves deeper into the interior

     

    1. Photosphere-the apparent surface of a star.

     

    1. Chromosphere-the orange –red layer above the photosphere

     

    1. Corona-the wide, outermost layer of a star’s atmosphere

     

    1. Nebula-a cloud of gas and dust

     

    1. White dwarf-a hot, dense, slowly cooling sphere of carbon

     

    1. Supernova-an enormous explosion that destroys a star

     

    1. Black hole-an object whose gravity is so great that no light can escape

     

    1. Galaxy-a huge collection of stars

     

    1. Asteroid-millions of small, rocky objects that orbit the Sun

     

    1. Comet-made of gas, dust and ice and moves around the Sun in an oval-shaped orbit.

     

    1. Meteoroid-small, rocky particle that moves through space

     

    1. Meteor-a streak of light in Earth’s atmosphere made by a glowing meteoroid

     

    1. Meteorite-is a meteoroid that strikes a planet or moon

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Interactions of Living Things

     

    1.     1. Ecology - the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

     

    2.     2.Biotic - the living factors in the environment

     

    3.     3.Abiotic - the nonliving factors in the environment

     

    4.     4.Population - a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

     

    5.     5.Community - all the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other

     

    6.     6.Ecosystem - a community of organisms and the abiotic factors that affect them

     

    7.     7.Biosphere - the part of the Earth where life exists

     

    8.     8.Carrying Capacity - the largest population size than can exist in a particular area

     

    9.     9.Limiting Factor-an environmental factor that causes a population to decrease

     

    1010. Habitat-an environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.

     

    1111. Niche-the role an organism plays in its environment.

     

    1212. Adaptation-the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environment.

     

    1313. Competition-the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same resources

     

    1414. Prey - an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism (hunted)

     

    1515. Predator - an organism that eats all or part of another organism (hunter)

     

    1616. Symbiosis - the relationship between two different organisms that live closely together

     

    1717. Mutualism - when two different species live together and they both benefit from the relationship

     

    1818. Commensalism - when two different species live together and one benefits but the other is unaffected

     

    1919. Parasitism - when two different species live together and one benefits while the other is harmed

     

    20.20. Host-the organism that the parasite lives on

     

    2121. Herbivore - an organism that eats only plants

     

    2222. Carnivore - an organism that eats only animals

     

    2323. Omnivore - an organism that eats some plants and some animals

     

    2424. Food Chain - the pathway of energy transfer

     

    2525. Food Web -  a diagram that shows all feeding relationships in a community

     

    2626. Energy Pyramid - a diagram that shows the gain or loss of energy in a community

     

     

     

    Kingdom Protista Vocabulary

     

    1. parasite-an organism that feeds on an organism of another species and that usually harms the host.

     

    1. host- an organism from which a parasite takes food or shelter

     

    1. cilia- hair-like structures that line the organism and help with movement

     

    1. flagella- a tail-like structure that is used for movement

     

    1. conjugation-a form of sexual reproduction in which 2 individuals join together to exchange genetic material.

     

    1. binary fission- a form of asexual reproduction when a single cell organism divides into 2 cells.

     

    1. multiple fission- a form of asexual reproduction when a single celled protist make more than two offspring from one parent.

     

    1. pseudopodia- “false feet”, a structure that helps amoebas and amoeba-like protist to move and catch food.

     

    1. contractile vacuole-an organelle that pumps out excess water from the cell

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Kingdom Fungi Vocabulary

     

    1. Fungus – eukaryotic heterotrophs that have a rigid cell wall and no chlorophyll.

     

    2. Hypha – thread-like fungal filaments

     

    3. Mycelium – the mass of fungal filaments, or hyphae, that form the body of the fungus

     

    4. Spores – small reproductive cells protected by a thick cell wall.

     

    5. Mold – a shapeless, fuzzy fungus

     

    6. Lichen – a combination of fungus and algae that grow together

     

    7. Mycologist – a scientist who studies fungi

     

    8. Penicillin – a common antibiotic made from fungi and used to treat bacterial infections

     

     

     

     

     

     

    Plantae Kingdom Vocabulary

     

    1. Photosynthesis- a food making process where plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen.
    2. Chloroplasts- structures in a plant cell that contain chlorophyll to help a plant make food
    3. Chlorophyll- a green pigment found in the chloroplast of plant, algae, and some bacteria cells
    4. Cuticle- a waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants
    5. Vascular Tissue- a system of tube-like structures inside a plant that transport water, mineral, and food.
    6. rhizoids- a thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant.
    7. frond- the leaf of a fern plant.
    8. pollen-tiny particles produced by seed plants that contain sperm cells
    9. tropism-the growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
    10. dormancy-a period when an organism’s growth or activity stops

     

     

     

     
     
    • Eukaryotic Cells and Kingdom Animalia

       

      1.  Cell - the basic unit of structure and function in a living thing

       

      2.  Tissue - a group of similar cells that perform the same function

       

      3.  Organ - a structure in the body composed of different kinds of tissue

       

      4.  Phylum - a group of organisms that belong to the same kingdom

       

      5.  Vertebrate - animals that have backbones

       

      6.  Invertebrate - animals that do not have backbones

       

      7.  Adaptation - anything that helps and organism to be successful in its environment

       

      8.  Eukaryote - a cell that contains a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles

       

      9. Ectotherm - cold-blooded animals

       

      10.  Endotherm - warm-blooded animals

       

      11.  Cilia - small, hair-like projections that help single-cell eukaryotes to move

       

      12.  DNA - Deoxyribonucleic Acid; the genetic code for a living thing

       

      13.  RNA - Ribonucleic Acid; uses the DNA code to produce proteins

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    •  

       

       

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     Motion vocab

    1.      1.  Force-a push or pull

    2.      2. Newton-a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second.

    3.      3. Net force-the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.

    4.       4. Unbalanced force-forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes the object’s motion.

    5.       5. Balanced force-equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.

    6.       6. Friction-the force that on surface exerts on another when the tow surfaces rub against each other.

    7.       7. Static friction-friction that acts on objects that are not moving

    8.       8. Sliding friction-friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.

    9.       9. Rolling friction-friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface

    10.   10. Fluid friction-friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid

    11.   11. Gravity-the attractive force between objects, its strength depends on their masses and the distance between them

    12.   12. Mass-the amount of matter in an object

    13.   13. Weight-the force of gravity on an object

    14.   14. Free fall-the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity

    15.   15. Air resistance-a type of fluid friction objects have when falling through air.

    16.   16. Terminal velocity-the greatest velocity a falling object can achieve

    17.  17.  Projectile-an object that is throw

     
     

    Water Vocab

    1.      Groundwater-water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers.

    2.     Water cycle-the continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back.

    3.     Transpiration-the process by which water is lost through a plant’s leaves

    4.     Precipitation-water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, sleet or hail

    5.     Tributary-a stream or smaller river that feeds into a main river

    6.     Watershed-the land area that supplies water to a river system

    7.     Divide- ridge of land that separates one watershed from another.

    8.     Reservoir-a lake that stores water for human use

    9.     Wetland-a land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all the year.

    10.  Permeable-a characteristic of materials, such as sand and gravel, through which water easily passes.

    11.  Impermeable-a characteristic of materials, such as clay and granite, through which water does not easily pass

    12.  Saturated zone-the area of permeable rock or soil which the cracks and pores are totally filled with water.

    13.  Water table-the top of the saturated zone, or depth to the groundwater under Earth’s surface

    14.  Unsaturated zone-the layer of rocks and soil above the water table in which the pores contain air as well as  water

    15.  Aquifer-any underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that holds water.  This is actually the saturated zone.

    16. Wells- a channel dug into the aquifer to supply water by pumping.

    17. Artesian well- a well dug that does not need to be pumped due to the pressure from the rock above it.  Water rises on its own.

    18.water pollution-the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on water.

    19.  pollutant-a substance that causes pollution

    20. acid rain-rain or another form of precipitation that is more acidic than normal, caused by the release of molecules of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air.

     
     

    Introduction to Matter Vocabulary

    1. Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space

    2. Chemistry - the study of properties of matter and how matter changes
    3. Substance - a single kind of matter that is pure (its makeup is always the same)
    4. Physical Property - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing into another substance
    5. Chemical Property - a characteristic that describes a substances ability to change into another substance
    6. Element - a pure substance; can not be broken down into another substance
    7. Atom - the basic structure of any element
    8. Chemical Bond - a force between two atoms that allow them to combine
    9. Molecules - groups of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
    10. Compound - a substance made of two or more elements
    11. Chemical Formula - represents the which and how many elements are bonded together
    12. Mixture - two or more substances that are combined (not chemically) and can be easily separated
    13.  Heterogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can see the different parts
    14. Homogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can not see the different parts because they are evenly mixed
    15. Solution - a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves into another
    16. Physical Change - any change that alters the form or appearance of matter without making a new substance
    17. Chemical Change - a change that produces one or more new substances

     

     
     

    Vocabulary for Chapter 13 Diseases      

    1. Pathogen - an organism that causes disease

    2. Infectious disease - a disease caused by a living thing inside the body

    3. toxin - poison produced by bacteria

    4. inflammatory response - when fluid and white blood cells get into tissue to fight infection

    5. phagocyte - a white blood cell that eats pathogens

    6. immune response - when cells are specifically targeted for a specific pathogen

    7. lymphocytes - white blood cells that distinguish between different pathogens

    8. T cells - identify and distinguish between different types of pathogens

    9. Antigens - molecules that distinguish between other molecules as part of your body or foreign

    10. B cells - produced by lymphocytes that produce antibodies

    11. Antibodies - proteins that destroy pathogens

    12. Immunity - the body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease

    13. Active immunity - immunity that develops because one has already had the disease

    14. Vaccination - deliberate introduction of the disease into ones body so it will build up immunity

    15. Vaccine - the substance used in the vaccination

    16. Antibiotic - a chemical that kills bacteria

    17. Passive immunity - immunity that develops because one has received them from someone else

    18. Noninfectious disease - diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body

    19. Allergy - disorder that occurs when the immune system is overly sensitive to foreign substances

    20. Allergen - causes an allergy

    21. Histamine - chemical that is responsible for the symptoms of allergy (causes sneezing, itching, etc.)

    22. Asthma-a disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly

    23. Diabetes-a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body’s cells cannot use it properly.

    24. Insulin-a chemical produced in the pancreas that enables the body’s cells to take in glucose from the blood and use it for stored energy.

     
     

     

     
     

    Interactions of Living Things

     

    1.     Ecology - the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment

     

    2.     Biotic - the living factors in the environment

     

    3.     Abiotic - the nonliving factors in the environment

     

    4.     Population - a group of organisms of the same species that live in a specific geographical area

     

    5.     Community - all the populations of species that live in the same habitat and interact with each other

     

    6.     Ecosystem - a community of organisms and the abiotic factors that affect them

     

    7.     Biosphere - the part of the Earth where life exists

     

    8.     Carrying Capacity - the largest population size than can exist in a particular area

     

    9.     Limiting Factor-an environmental factor that causes a population to decrease

     

    10. Habitat-an environment that provides the things an organism needs to live, grow and reproduce.

     

    11. Niche-the role an organism plays in its environment.

     

    12. Adaptation-the behaviors and physical characteristics that allow organisms to live successfully in their environment.

     

    13. Competition-the struggle between organisms to survive as they attempt to use the same resources

     

    14. Prey - an organism that is killed and eaten by another organism (hunted)

     

    15. Predator - an organism that eats all or part of another organism (hunter)

     

    16. Symbiosis - the relationship between two different organisms that live closely together

     

    17. Mutualism - when two different species live together and they both benefit from the relationship

     

    18. Commensalism - when two different species live together and one benefits but the other is unaffected

     

    19. Parasitism - when two different species live together and one benefits while the other is harmed

     

    20. Host-the organism that the parasite lives on

     

     

    21. Herbivore - an organism that eats only plants

     

    22. Carnivore - an organism that eats only animals

     

    23. Omnivore - an organism that eats some plants and some animals

     

    24. Food Chain - the pathway of energy transfer

     

    25. Food Web -  a diagram that shows all feeding relationships in a community

     

    26. Energy Pyramid - a diagram that shows the gain or loss of energy in a community

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    Seed Plants chapter 10

    1. Phloem - vascular tissue that transports food

     

    2. Xylem - vascular tissue that transports water and minerals

     

    3. Pollen - tiny structures that contain sperm for a plant

     

    4. Seed - a structure containing a young plant inside a protective covering

     

    5. Embryo - the young plant that developed from a zygote

     

    6. Cotyledons - seed leaves that store food for an embryo

     

    7. Germination - when the embryo inside the seed begins to develop into a new plant

     

    8. Root cap - a structure that protects the tip of the root as it grows through the soil

     

    9. Cambium - cells that divide to produce xylem and phloem

     

    10. Stomata - small openings on the surface of leaves that allow gases in and out

     

    11. Transpiration - a process where water is lost through the leaves of the plant

     

    12. Gymnosperms - seed plants that produce naked seeds in cones

     

    13. Cones - the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm

     

    14. Ovule - the female gamete, or egg, is located here

     

    15. Pollination - the transfer of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure

     

    16. Angiosperm - a seed plant that produces a fruit and or flower

     

    17. Flower - the reproductive structure of an angiosperm

     

    18. Sepals - green leaf-like structures that surround a flower bud

     

    19. Petals - the colorful, leaf-like structures of a flower

     

    20. Stamens - male reproductive parts of a flower that include the filament and the anther

     

    21. Pistils - female reproductive parts of a flower that include the stigma, style, and ovary

     

    22. Ovary - hollow structure in a flower that protects developing seeds

     

    23. Fruit - a ripened ovary

     

    24. Monocots - angiosperms with only one seed leaf

     

    25. Dicots - angiosperms with two seed leaves

    26. Tropism-a plant's growth toward or away from a stimulus
     
    27. hormone-a chemical produced by the plant that affects how it grows and develops
     
    28.  Auxin-plant hormone
     
    29.  photoperiodism-a plant's response to seasonal  changes in length of night and day.
     
    30. Short day plants-flower when nights are long-(fall and winter)
     
    31. Long day plants- flower when nights are short (spring and summer)
     
    32.  Critical night length- the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower
     
    33. day neutral plants-flowering periods are not sensitive to periods of light and dark
     
    34. dormancy- a period when  an organism's growth or activity  stops
     
    35. annuals- flowering plants that complete a life cycle in one year
     
    36. biennials- flowering plants that complete their life cycle in two years
     
    37. perennials- flowering plants that live for more than two years. 
     
     
     
     
     

    Intro to Plants

     

    1.Photosynthesis - a food making process where plants use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen.

     

    2. Tissues - groups of similar cells that perform a specific function

     

    3. Chloroplasts - structures in a plant cell that contain chlorophyll to help a plant make food

     

    4. Vacuole - a large storage sac that can expand to hold water, wastes, and food for the plant cell

     

    5.  Cuticle - a waxy, waterproof layer that covers the leaves of most plants

     

    6.  Vascular tissue - a system of tube-like structures inside a plant that transport water, mineral, and food.

     

    7.  Fertilization - occurs when a sperm cell unites with an egg cell

     

    8.  Zygote - a single cell; formed from an egg a sperm

     

    9. Nonvascular plants - lack a well-developed system of tubes; must live in wet environments

     

    10. Vascular plants - have a true well developed tube system; able to live in dry conditions

     

    11. Chlorophyll - a green pigment found in the chloroplast of plant, algae, and some bacteria cells

     

    12.  Sporophyte - stage of a plants life where spores form

     

    13. Gametophyte - stage of a plants life where sex cells such as sperm and egg are formed

     

    14. rhizoids-a thin, rootlike structure that anchors a moss and absorbs water and nutrients for the plant.

     

    15. bog-a wetland where sphagnum moss grows on top of acidic water.

     

    16. peat-compressed layers of dead sphagnum mosses that accumulate in bogs.

     

    17. fronds-the leaf of a fern plant.

     

     

    Vocabulary for LIGHT chapter 8

    1.  Transparent material - material that transmits light without scattering it.

     

    2.  Translucent material - material that scatters light as it passes through.

     

    3.  Opaque material - material that reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it. 

     

    4.  Primary Colors - three colors of light that can combine to make any other color (red, green, blue)

     

    5.  Secondary Colors - formed by a combination of two primary colors (magenta, yellow, cyan)

     

    6.  Complementary colors - any two colors that combine to make white light (yellow and blue, cyan and red, magenta and green)

     

    7.  Pigments - colored substances that are used to color other substances

     

    8.  Rays - A straight line used to represent a light wave.

     

    9.  Regular Reflection - when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface; sharp reflection

     

    10.  Diffuse Reflection - when parallel rays of light hit a bumpy surface; unclear reflection

     

    11. Plane mirror - a flat sheet of glass with a smooth, silver-colored coating on one side

     

    12.  Image - a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted light

     

    13.  Virtual image - the image seen in a plane mirror; (virtual = does not really exist)

     

    14.  Concave mirror - a mirror with a surface that curves inward (like the inside of a bowl)

     

    15.  Optical axis - an imaginary line that divides a mirror in half (like the equator is an imaginary line that divides the Earth)

     

    16.  Focal point - the point at which rays parallel to the optical axis meet, or appear to meet, after being reflected by a mirror

     

    17.  Real image - image formed when rays actually meet

     

    18.  Convex mirror - a mirror with a surface that curves outward

     

    19.  Index of refraction - a measure of how much a light bends when it enters a material

     

    20.  Mirage - an image of a distant object caused by the refraction of light

     

    21.  Lens - a curved piece of glass that is used to refract (bend) light

     

    22.  Convex lens - a lens that is thicker in the center and thin on the edges

     

    23.  Concave lens - a lens that is thin in the middle and thick on the edges

     

     

     

    Energy and Heat Vocabulary

        1)    Energy-the ability to do work or cause a change

    2) Kinetic energy-energy an object has due to its motion

    3)Potential Energy-stored energy that  results from the object’s position or shape

    4) Gravitational Potential Energy-potential energy that depends on the height of the object

    5)Elastic Potential Energy-the energy of  stretched or compressed objects

    6)Mechanical Energy-kinetic and potential energy associated with the motion and position of an object

    7)Thermal Energy-total kinetic and potential of the PARTICLES in an object—the motion of particles

    8)Electrical energy-the energy of electrically charged particles

    9)Chemical energy-a form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms

    10)Nuclear Energy-potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom

    11)Electromagnetic energy-the energy of light and other forms of radiant energy like sound

    12) energy transformation-the process of changing from one form of energy to another

    13)law of conservation of energy-the rule that energy cannot be created or  destroyed

     14)matter-anything that has mass and takes up space

     
     
     
     
     
     

    What is Science? unit

     

     

    1.      Scientific Inquiry—the diverse ways in which scientist study the world and propose explanations based on the evidence they gather.  (known as the scientific method)
     
     

    2.     Hypothesis—an educated guess.

     

     

    3.     Manipulated or independent variable -the one factor being tested in an experiment.  It can be found in the question—EX: “Will rock music affect my hamster’s behavior? The rock music would be the variable.

     

     

    4.     Responding or dependent variable-the factor that might change as a result of the experiment.  EX: your hamster’s behavior changing would be the dependent variable.

     

    5.     Controlled experiment- the normal.  This is the “other” experiment going on WITHOUT the variable, so you have something to compare the variable against.

     

     

    6.     Experimental group- the experiment that contains the variable.

     

     

    7.     Data-facts, figures, and other evidence collected through your observations.

     

     

    8.     Quantitative—observations that deal with numbers or amounts.

     

    9.  Qualitative—observations that are descriptions that do not deal with numbers like color, shape, or taste

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    Chapter 20 Earth, Moon, and Sun

    1. Astronomy-the study of the moon, stars, and other objects in space

    2.Axis- an imaginary line that passes through Earth’s center and the North and South poles, about which Earth rotates.

    3.Rotation-the spinning motion of a planet on its axis

    4.Revolution-the movement of an object around another object

    5.Orbit-the path of an object as it revolves around another object in space.

    6.Calendar-a system of organizing time that defines the beginning, length, and divisions of a year

    7.Solstice-the two days of the year on which the sun reaches its greatest distance north or south of the equator

    8.Equinox-the two days of the year on which neither hemisphere is tilted toward or away from the sun

    9.Force- any push or pull

    10.            Gravity-the attractive force between objects; its strength depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them

    11.            Law of Universal Gravitation-the scientific law that states that every object in the universe attracts every other object

    12.            Mass-the amount of matter in an object

    13.            Weight-the force of gravity on an object at the surface of a planet

    14.            Inertia-the tendency of an object to resist a change in motion

    15.            Newton’s first law of motion-an object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion at a constant speed and in a straight line unless acted on by an unbalanced force

    16.            Phases-one of the different apparent shapes of the moon as seen from Earth

    17.            Eclipse-process in which an object in space comes between the sun and a third object and a shadow is cast on the third object

    18.            Solar eclipse-the blocking of sunlight to Earth that occurs when the moon is directly between the sun and Earth

    19.            Umbra- the darkest part of a shadow

    20.            Penumbra-the part of a shadow surrounding the darkest part

    21.            Lunar eclipse-the blocking of sunlight to the moon that occurs when Earth is directly between the sun and the moon

    22.            Tide-the periodic rise and fall of the level of water in the ocean

    23.            Spring tide-the tide with the greatest difference between consecutive low and high tides

    24.            Neap tide- the tide with the least difference between consecutive low and high tides

     

    CHP. 16 Plate Tectonics Vocabulary

     

    1.     Seismic waves-vibrations that travel through Earth carrying energy released during an earthquake.

    2.    Pressure-the force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted.

    3.    Crust-the layer of rock that forms Earth’s outer surface.

    4.    Basalt-a dark, dense, igneous rock with a fine texture found in the oceanic crust.

    5.    Granite-a usually light colored igneous rock that is found in continental crust.

    6.    Mantle-the layer of hot, solid material between the Earth’s crust and core.

    7.    Lithosphere-a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle under the crust.

    8.    Asthenosphere-the soft layer of the mantle on which the lithosphere floats

    9.    Outer core-a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core.

    10.  Inner core-a dense sphere (ball) of solid iron and nickel at the center of Earth.

    11.    Continental drift-the hypothesis that the continents slowly move across Earth’s surface.

    12.  Pangaea-the name of a single landmass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave rise to today’s continents. From Wegener’s theory.

    13.  Fossil-a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved by rock.

    14.  Mid-ocean ridge-an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary.

    15.  Sea-floor spreading- the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor.

    16.  Deep-ocean trench- a deep valley along the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle.

    17.  Subduction-the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary.

    18.   Plate-a section of lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere, carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust.

    19.   Scientific theory- a well-tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.

    20.  Plate tectonics- the theory that pieces of Earth’s lithosphere are in constant motion, driven by the convection currents of the mantle.

    21.  Fault- a break in Earth’s crust where masses of rock slip past each other.

    22.  Divergent boundary- a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other.

    23.  Rift valley- a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart.

    24.  Convergent boundary- a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other.

    25. Transform boundary- a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     Motion vocab

    1.        Force-a push or pull

    2.       Newton-a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second.

    3.       Net force-the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.

    4.       Unbalanced force-forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes the object’s motion.

    5.       Balanced force-equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.

    6.       Friction-the force that on surface exerts on another when the tow surfaces rub against each other.

    7.       Static friction-friction that acts on objects that are not moving

    8.       Sliding friction-friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.

    9.       Rolling friction-friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface

    10.   Fluid friction-friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid

    11.   Gravity-the attractive force between objects, its strength depends on their masses and the distance between them

    12.   Mass-the amount of matter in an object

    13.   Weight-the force of gravity on an object

    14.   Free fall-the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity

    15.   Air resistance-a type of fluid friction objects have when falling through air.

    16.   Terminal velocity-the greatest velocity a falling object can achieve

    17.   Projectile-an object that is thrown

     
     
     
     
     

     

    Vocabulary for Chapter 13 Diseases       

    1.Pathogen - an organism that causes disease

    2.Infectious disease - a disease caused by a living thing inside the body

    3.toxin - poison produced by bacteria

    4.inflammatory response - when fluid and white blood cells get into tissue to fight infection

    5.phagocyte - a white blood cell that eats pathogens

    6.immune response - when cells are specifically targeted for a specific pathogen

    7.lymphocytes - white blood cells that distinguish between different pathogens

    8.T cells - identify and distinguish between different types of pathogens

    9.Antigens - molecules that distinguish between other molecules as part of your body or foreign

    10. B cells - produced by lymphocytes that produce antibodies

    11.Antibodies - proteins that destroy pathogens

    12.Immunity - the body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease

    13.Active immunity - immunity that develops because one has already had the disease

    14.Vaccination - deliberate introduction of the disease into ones body so it will build up immunity

    15.Vaccine - the substance used in the vaccination

    16.Antibiotic - a chemical that kills bacteria

    17.Passive immunity - immunity that develops because one has received them from someone else

    18.Noninfectious disease - diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body

    19. Allergy - disorder that occurs when the immune system is overly sensitive to foreign substances

    20. Allergen - causes an allergy

    21. Histamine - chemical that is responsible for the symptoms of allergy (causes sneezing, itching, etc.)

    22.  Asthma-a disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly

    23. Diabetes-a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body’s cells cannot use it properly.

    24. Insulin-a chemical produced in the pancreas that enables the body’s cells to take in glucose from the blood and use it for stored energy.

     

     
     
     

     

     
     
     
     
     Chapter 18

    1.  Irrigation - the process of supplying water to areas of land to make them suitable for growing crops

    2.  Conservation - using less of a resource so that it will not be used up

    3.  Desalination - obtaining freshwater from salt water

    4.  Water Quality - a measure of the substances in water besides water molecules

    5.  Concentration - the amount of one substance in a certain volume of another substance

    6.  pH - the measure of how acidic or basic the water is

    7.  Hardness - the combined level of calcium and magnesium in water

    8.  Filtration - the process of pushing water through a series of screens that allow water through, but not larger particles

    9.  Coagulation - a part of the water treatment process where large particles are removed by sticking to flocs of alum  

    10.  Sewage - wastewater and the different kinds of wastes in it

    11.  Water Pollution - the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on water

    12.  Pollutants - a substance that causes pollution

    13.  Point source - a specific source of pollution

    14.  Non Point Source-a widely spread source of pollution that is difficult to link to a specific spot.

    15.  Pesticides - chemicals intended to kill insects and other organisms that damage crops

    16.  Acid Rain - Precipitation with higher levels of sulfuric or nitric acids

     
     
     Water chapter 17

    1.  Polar molecule - a molecule that has charged particles
     
    2.  Capillary action - allows water to move through materials with pores; against gravity
     
    3.  Surface tension - the tightness of the water's surface caused by the molecules pulling inward
     
    4.  Solution - a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves into another
     
    5.  Solvent- the substance that does the dissolving
     
    6.  Specific heat - the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of a substance by one degree
     
    7.  Evaporation - the process of molecules changing from a liquid to a gas
     
    8.  Condensation - the process of molecules changing from a gas to a liquid
     
    9.  Groundwater - Water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground rock and soil layers
     
    10.  Water Cycle - continuous process by which water moves between Earth's surface and the atmosphere
     
    11.  Transpiration - water that is given off through the leaves of plants
     
    12.  Precipitation - rain, snow, hail, or sleet
     
    13.  Tributary - streams and smaller rivers that feed into a main river
     
    14.  Watershed - land area that supplies water to a river system
     
    15.  Divide - separates one watershed from another
     
    16. Reservoir - a lake that stores water for human use
     
    17.  Nutrient - substances such as nitrogen and phosphorous that enable plants and algae to grow
     
    18. Eutrophication - nutrients that build-up in a lake
     
    19.  Wetland - a land area that is covered by with a shallow layer of water some or all of the time
     
    20.  Permeable - materials that allow substances to pass through or penetrate
     
    21.  Impermeable - water can not pass through easily
     
    22.  Saturated Zone - area of rock that is totally filled with water
     
    23.  Water table - the top of the saturated zone
     
    24.  Aquifer - any underground layer of permeable rock or sediments that hold water
     
    25.  Artesian Well- water from underground that rises because of pressure
    Vocabulary for LIGHT chapter 8
    1.  Transparent material - material that transmits light without scattering it.
     
    2.  Translucent material - material that scatters light as it passes through.
     
    3.  Opaque material - material that reflects or absorbs all of the light that strikes it. 
     
    4.  Primary Colors - three colors of light that can combine to make any other color (red, green, blue)
     
    5.  Secondary Colors - formed by a combination of two primary colors (magenta, yellow, cyan)
     
    6.  Complementary colors - any two colors that combine to make white light (yellow and blue, cyan and red, magenta and green)
     
    7.  Pigments - colored substances that are used to color other substances
     
    8.  Rays - A straight line used to represent a light wave.
     
    9.  Regular Reflection - when parallel rays of light hit a smooth surface; sharp reflection
     
    10.  Diffuse Reflection - when parallel rays of light hit a bumpy surface; unclear reflection
     
    11. Plane mirror - a flat sheet of glass with a smooth, silver-colored coating on one side
     
    12.  Image - a copy of an object formed by reflected or refracted light
     
    13.  Virtual image - the image seen in a plane mirror; (virtual = does not really exist)
     
    14.  Concave mirror - a mirror with a surface that curves inward (like the inside of a bowl)
     
    15.  Optical axis - an imaginary line that divides a mirror in half (like the equator is an imaginary line that divides the Earth)
     
    16.  Focal point - the point at which rays parallel to the optical axis meet, or appear to meet, after being reflected by a mirror
     
    17.  Real image - image formed when rays actually meet
     
    18.  Convex mirror - a mirror with a surface that curves outward
     
    19.  Index of refraction - a measure of how much a light bends when it enters a material
     
    20.  Mirage - an image of a distant object caused by the refraction of light
     
    21.  Lens - a curved piece of glass that is used to refract (bend) light
     
    22.  Convex lens - a lens that is thicker in the center and thin on the edges
     
    23.  Concave lens - a lens that is thin in the middle and thick on the edges
     
     
     
     
     
    x
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Seed Plants chapter 10
    Phloem - vascular tissue that transports food
     
    Xylem - vascular tissue that transports water and minerals
     
    Pollen - tiny structures that contain sperm for a plant
     
    Seed - a structure containing a young plant inside a protective covering
     
    Embryo - the young plant that developed from a zygote
     
    Cotyledons - seed leaves that store food for an embryo
     
    Germination - when the embryo inside the seed begins to develop into a new plant
     
    Root cap - a structure that protects the tip of the root as it grow through the soil
     
    Cambium - cells that divide to produce xylem and phloem
     
    Stomata - small openings on the surface of leaves that allow gases in and out
     
    Transpiration - a process where water is lost through the leaves of the plant
     
    Gymnosperms - seed plants that produce naked seeds in cones
     
    Cones - the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm
     
    Ovule - the female gamete, or egg, is located here
     
    Pollination - the transfer of pollen from a male reproductive structure to a female reproductive structure
     
    Angiosperm - a seed plant that produces a fruit and or flower
     
    Flower - the reproductive structure of an angiosperm
     
    Sepals - green leaf-like structures that surround a flower bud
     
    Petals - the colorful, leaf-like structures of a flower
     
    Stamens - male reproductive parts of a flower that include the filament and the anther
     
    Pistils - female reproductive parts of a flower that include the stigma, style, and ovary
     
    Ovary - hollow structure in a flower that protects developing seeds
     
    Fruit - a ripened ovary
     
    Monocots - angiosperms with only one seed leaf
     
    Dicots - angiosperms with two seed leaves
     
     
     
     
     
     

    x

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    C         

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    For Interactions of Living Things Chapter students were given a copy of the glossary on gold paper.  Words to define were marked on the page.  :)
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

     

     
     
     
     

     

    Water Vocab

     

    1.       Groundwater-water that fills the cracks and spaces in underground soil and rock layers.

     

    2.      Water cycle-the continuous process by which water moves from Earth’s surface to the atmosphere and back.

     

    3.      Transpiration-the process by which water is lost through a plant’s leaves

     

    4.      Precipitation-water that falls to Earth as rain, snow, sleet or hail

     

    5.      Tributary-a stream or smaller river that feeds into a main river

     

    6.      Watershed-the land area that supplies water to a river system

     

    7.      Divide- ridge of land that separates one watershed from another.

     

    8.      Reservoir-a lake that stores water for human use

     

    9.      Wetland-a land area that is covered with a shallow layer of water during some or all the year.

     

    10. Permeable-a characteristic of materials, such as sand and gravel, through which water easily passes.

     

    11. Impermeable-a characteristic of materials, such as clay and granite, through which water does not easily pass

     

    12. Saturated zone-the area of permeable rock or soil which the cracks and pores are totally filled with water.

     

    13. Water table-the top of the saturated zone, or depth to the groundwater under Earth’s surface

     

    14. Unsaturated zone-the layer of rocks and soil above the water table in which the pores contain air as well as water

     

    15. Aquifer-any underground layer of permeable rock or sediment that holds water. This is actually the saturated zone.

     

    16. Wells- a channel dug into the aquifer to supply water by pumping.

     

    17. Artesian well- a well dug that does not need to be pumped due to the pressure from the rock above it. Water rises on its own.

     

    18.water pollution-the addition of any substance that has a negative effect on water or the living things that depend on water.

     

    19. pollutant-a substance that causes pollution

     

    20. acid rain-rain or another form of precipitation that is more acidic than normal, caused by the release of molecules of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide into the air.

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     
    Nature of FORCES vocab
     
     
     

    1.        Force-a push or pull

     

    2.       Newton-a unit of measure that equals the force required to accelerate 1 kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second.

     

    3.       Net force-the overall force on an object when all the individual forces acting on it are added together.

     

    4.       Unbalanced force-forces that produce a nonzero net force, which changes the object’s motion.

     

    5.       Balanced force-equal forces acting on an object in opposite directions.

     

    6.       Friction-the force that on surface exerts on another when the tow surfaces rub against each other.

     

    7.       Static friction-friction that acts on objects that are not moving

     

    8.       Sliding friction-friction that occurs when one solid surface slides over another.

     

    9.       Rolling friction-friction that occurs when an object rolls over a surface

     

    10.   Fluid friction-friction that occurs as an object moves through a fluid

     

    11.   Gravity-the attractive force between objects, its strength depends on their masses and the distance between them

     

    12.   Mass-the amount of matter in an object

     

    13.   Weight-the force of gravity on an object

     

    14.   Free fall-the motion of a falling object when the only force acting on it is gravity

     

    15.   Air resistance-a type of fluid friction objects have when falling through air.

     

    16.   Terminal velocity-the greatest velocity a falling object can achieve

     
    17.   Projectile-an object that is thrown
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     

    Introduction to Matter Vocabulary

     

    1. Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space

     

    2. Chemistry - the study of properties of matter and how matter changes

     

    3. Substance - a single kind of matter that is pure (its makeup is always the same)

     

    4. Physical Property - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing into another substance

     

    5. Chemical Property - a characteristic that describes a substances ability to change into another substance

     

    6. Element - a pure substance; can not be broken down into another substance

     

    7. Atom - the basic structure of any element

     

    8. Chemical Bond - a force between two atoms that allow them to combine

     

    9. Molecules - groups of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond

     

    10. Compound - a substance made of two or more elements

     

    11. Chemical Formula - represents the which and how many elements are bonded together

     

    12. Mixture - two or more substances that are combined (not chemically) and can be easily separated

     

    13.  Heterogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can see the different parts

     

    14. Homogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can not see the different parts because they are evenly mixed

     

    15. Solution - a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves into another

     

    16. Physical Change - any change that alters the form or appearance of matter without making a new substance

     

    17. Chemical Change - a change that produces one or more new substances

     

     
     
    Vocabulary for Chapter 13 Diseases

    Pathogen - an organism that causes disease

    Infectious disease - a disease caused by a living thing inside the body

    toxin - poison produced by bacteria

    inflammatory response - when fluid and white blood cells get into tissue to fight infection

    phagocyte - a white blood cell that eats pathogens

    immune response - when cells are specifically targeted for a specific pathogen

    lymphocytes - white blood cells that distinguish between different pathogens

    T cells - identify and distinguish between different types of pathogens

    Antigens - molecules that distinguish between other molecules as part of your body or foreign

    B cells - produced by lymphocytes that produce antibodies

    Antibodies - proteins that destroy pathogens

    Immunity - the body's ability to destroy pathogens before they can cause disease

    Active immunity - immunity that develops because one has already had the disease

    Vaccination - deliberate introduction of the disease into ones body so it will build up immunity

    Vaccine - the substance used in the vaccination

    Antibiotic - a chemical that kills bacteria

    Passive immunity - immunity that develops because one has received them from someone else

    Noninfectious disease - diseases that are not caused by pathogens in the body

    Allergy - disorder that occurs when the immune system is overly sensitive to foreign substances

    Allergen - causes an allergy

    Histamine - chemical that is responsible for the symptoms of allergy (causes sneezing, itching, etc.)

    AIDS-a disease caused by a virus that attacks the immune system.

    HIV-the virus that causes AIDS

    Asthma-a disorder in which the respiratory passages narrow significantly

    Diabetes-a condition in which the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the body’s cells cannot use it properly.

    Insulin-a chemical produced in the pancreas that enables the body’s cells to take in glucose from the blood and use it for stored energy.

     

     

     

     

     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
    Vocabulary for Introduction to Matter Chapter 2

    Matter
    - anything that has mass and takes up space
     
    Chemistry - the study of properties of matter and how matter changes
     
    Substance - a single kind of matter that is pure (its makeup is always the same)
     
    Physical Property - a characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing into another substance
     
    Chemical Property - a characteristic that describes a substances ability to change into another substance
     
    Element - a pure substance; can not be broken down into another substance
     
    Atom - the basic structure of any element
     
    Chemical Bond - a force between two atoms that allow them to combine
     
    Molecules - groups of two or more atoms held together by a chemical bond
     
    Compound - a substance made of two or more elements
     
    Chemical Formula - represents the which and how many elements are bonded together
     
    Mixture - two or more substances that are combined (not chemically) and can be easily separated
     
    Heterogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can see the different parts
     
    Homogeneous Mixture - a mixture in which you can not see the different parts because they are evenly mixed
     
    Solution - a mixture that forms when one substance dissolves into another
     
    Weight - a measure of the force of gravity on an object
     
    Mass - the amount of matter in an object
     
    International System of Units - SI; the metric system
     
    Volume - how much space matter takes up
     
    Density - how much mass is in a given volume